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A field and laboratory evaluation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of Giardia coproantigens in humans and dogs

Hopkins, R.M., Deplazes, P., Meloni, B.P., Reynoldson, J.A. and Thompson, R.C.A. (1993) A field and laboratory evaluation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of Giardia coproantigens in humans and dogs. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 87 (1). pp. 39-41.

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A capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA®) was evaluated for its ability to detect Giardia coproantigens in the faeces of humans and dogs in the Perth metropolitan area and Aboriginal communities in Fitzroy Crossing, Western Australia. Using zinc sulphate flotation and light microscopy, Giardia cysts and/or trophozoites were observed in 8 of 57 (14%) human stool samples from Perth and 21 of 55 (38%) stool samples from Fitzroy Crossing, after 2 separate examinations. Analysis of diagnostic sensitivity using the ELISA revealed that coproantigens were detected in all 29 human samples (100%) in which Giardia cysts and/or trophozoites were also present. Coproantigens were detected in one further sample from Perth and in 3 samples from Fitzroy Crossing in which no Giardia cyst or trophozoite was observed. The specificity of the test, as defined using Fitzroy Crossing samples free from Giardia, was 91%. The assay did not crossr-eact with Giardia-free stool samples containing Hymenolepis nana, Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Chilomastix mesnili or Ancylostoma duodenale. Giardia cysts and/or trophozoites were also observed in 11 of 32 dog faecal samples (34%) in Perth and 11 of 29 dog samples (38%) in Fitzroy Crossing, after one zinc sulphate examination. The sensitivity of the ELISA for dogs was 64% and 55% for Perth and Fitzroy Crossing specimens respectively. The specificity was 95% when Fitzroy Crossing samples were used. Other parasites observed in Giardia-free faecal samples from dogs which did not produce a positive reaction with the kit were Ancylostoma caninum, Sarcocystis sp. and Isospora sp. The assay was tested under field conditions, in Fitzroy Crossing, where the results were read visually and were shown to correlate well with results obtained using spectrophotometry. Giardia coproantigens present in human stools remained detectable by the ELISA even after storage untreated at 25 °C for 8 d.

Item Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation(s): School of Veterinary Studies
Publisher: Elsevier
Copyright: © 1993 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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