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Carotenoid production using microorganisms

Borowitzka, M.A. (2005) Carotenoid production using microorganisms. In: Cohen, Z. and Ratledge, C., (eds.) Single Cell Oils Microbial and Algal Oils: First Edition. AOCS Press, Urbana, Illinois, USA, pp. 124-137.


A wide variety of carotenoids are biosynthesized by plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria. They appear to play a range of roles in these organisms, especially light-harvesting in plants and protecting cells from oxidative damage. Natural carotenoids for applications in human and animal nutrition are extracted from a number of natural plant sources, and, in the last 25 years, several algal, fungal, and yeast sources have also been developed as commercial sources of β-carotene and astaxanthin. Microbial sources of other carotenoids, such as lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and canthaxanthin, are also being developed. Genetic engineering also provides a powerful tool for understanding the carotenoid biosynthetic pathways and their control and this information can be used to optimize production systems.

Publication Type: Book Chapter
Murdoch Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology
Publisher: AOCS Press
Copyright: © 2010 AOCS Press.
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