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The effects of haemorrhagic shock and leukoreduction on cytokine accumulation in canine packed red blood cells

Purcell, Sarah (2016) The effects of haemorrhagic shock and leukoreduction on cytokine accumulation in canine packed red blood cells. Other thesis, Murdoch University.

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Abstract

Blood transfusions can be life-saving, however, adverse effects occur. Some adverse effects are attributed to cytokine accumulation in blood products during storage. Interleukin-8 (IL- 8), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), are cytokines that have been shown to accumulate during storage in human packed red blood cells (PRBC). Leukoreduction removes leukocytes from blood products and thus prevents cytokine accumulation. A recent study in dogs showed that IL-8 accumulated in canine PRBC collected from non-anaesthetised dogs, and leukoreduction prevented this accumulation. At our institution, blood is collected from anaesthetised terminal donors in haemorrhagic shock. We were thus interested to investigate the effect of this method of blood collection on cytokine accumulation in stored canine PRBCs. Acute haemorrhage in rats, pigs and people has been shown to increase inflammatory cytokines. It is unknown if similar increases occur in dogs with haemorrhagic shock, or if these cytokines are increased in blood collected from terminal donors. Therefore, we collected three 450 mL units of blood from anaesthetised dogs prior to euthanasia. We studied the first units (U1) and third units (U3) collected. Half of each unit was leukoreduced (LR) to produce one LR, and one nonleukoreduced (NLR) unit. Samples were collected from these units during storage on days 0, 10, 20, 30, and 37. Concentrations of IL-8, and TNF-α were assessed by the authors using our in-house multiplexed genomic and proteomic biomarker analyser. Concentrations of IL- 1β were assessed by the authors using an in-house ELISA. In U1, collected prior to the onset of haemorrhagic shock, and in U3 collected after the onset of haemorrhagic shock, the concentration of IL-8 in NLR units was significantly greater than in LR units and increased during storage. Interleukin-1β did not significantly increase over time, and TNF-α was undetectable. Analysis of U3 compared with U1 did not show a significant difference in IL-8 concentration. Leukoreduction was successful at preventing accumulation of IL-8 in all units. Our research showed that IL-8 accumulates in canine PRBC during storage and leukoreduction prevents this accumulation. Units collected from terminal donors in shock did not contain significantly more IL-8, and therefore may not lead to increased adverse reactions when administered to patients.

Publication Type: Thesis (Other)
Murdoch Affiliation: School of Veterinary and Life Sciences
Notes: Research Masters with Training
Supervisor: Claus, Melissa
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/35130
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