Genetic characterization of cysteine-rich type-b avenin-like protein coding genes in common wheat
Chen, X.Y., Cao, X.Y., Zhang, Y.J., Islam, S., Zhang, J.J., Yang, R.C., Liu, J.J., Li, G.Y., Appels, R., Keeble-Gagnère, G., Ji, W.Q., He, Z.H. and Ma, W.J. (2016) Genetic characterization of cysteine-rich type-b avenin-like protein coding genes in common wheat. Scientific Reports, 6 .
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The wheat avenin-like proteins (ALP) are considered atypical gluten constituents and have shown positive effects on dough properties revealed using a transgenic approach. However, to date the genetic architecture of ALP genes is unclear, making it impossible to be utilized in wheat breeding. In the current study, three genes of type-b ALPs were identified and mapped to chromosomes 7AS, 4AL and 7DS. The coding gene sequence of both TaALP-7A and TaALP-7D was 855 bp long, encoding two identical homologous 284 amino acid long proteins. TaALP-4A was 858 bp long, encoding a 285 amino acid protein variant. Three alleles were identified for TaALP-7A and four for TaALP-4A. TaALP-7A alleles were of two types: type-1, which includes TaALP-7A1 andTaALP-7A2, encodes mature proteins, while type-2, represented byTaALP-7A3, contains a stop codon in the coding region and thus does not encode a mature protein. Dough quality testing of 102 wheat cultivars established a highly significant association of the type-1 TaALP-7A allele with better wheat processing quality. This allelic effects were confirmed among a range of commercial wheat cultivars. Our research makes the ALP be the first of such genetic variation source that can be readily utilized in wheat breeding.
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