Genetic variation and population structure of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) in the Asia-Pacific region
Yue, G-H, Zhu, Z.Y., Lo, L.C., Wang, C.M., Lin, G., Feng, F., Pang, H.Y., Li, J., Gong, P., Liu, H.M., Tan, J., Chou, R., Lim, H. and Orbán, L. (2009) Genetic variation and population structure of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) in the Asia-Pacific region. Aquaculture, 293 (1-2). pp. 22-28.
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Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is an important marine foodfish species in Southeast Asia and Australia. To facilitate a selective breeding program conducted in Singapore, we genotyped 772 Asian seabass individuals collected from five cultured stocks and four wild populations originating from Singapore, Australia, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan using 14 polymorphic microsatellites. A total of 210 alleles were detected at 14 loci across the nine populations. Cultured stocks showed much lower allelic and gene diversity (A = 3.57–8.21 alleles/locus, Ho = 0.52–0.66 and He = 0.47–0.74, respectively) than wild populations (A = 9.14–10.71 alleles/locus, Ho = 0.71–0.74 and He = 0.74–0.78, respectively). The wild population from Thailand showed the highest allele richness (AR = 8.50 alleles/locus), whereas one of the three cultured Australian stocks had the lowest one (3.57 alleles/locus). Populations from Southeast Asia were more diverse genetically (A = 13.28, AR = 10.23, Ho = 0.72 and He = 0.78) than those from Australia (7.0, 6.56, 0.59 and 0.64, respectively) and Taiwan (7.35, 7.35, 0.66 and 0.68, respectively). Nearly three quarter (73.3%) of 90 private alleles were detected in populations from Southeast Asia. Genetic differentiation among populations/stocks was statistically significant (FST = 0.124, RST = 0.159, P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis showed that stocks from Australia clustered into one group, while the samples from Southeast Asian and Taiwan formed another group. All these data suggest significant genetic differentiation between Australian and Southeast Asian populations/stocks, and Australian populations contain only part of genetic variation of Asian seabass, which should be taken into account in aquaculture of Asian seabass. A total of 549 individuals from the four wild populations in Southeast Asia are being used in a selective breeding program.
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