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Increased insulin following an oral glucose load, genetic variation near the melatonin receptor MTNR1B, but no biochemical evidence of endothelial dysfunction in young Asian men and women

Matuszek, M.A., Anton, A., Thillainathan, S. and Armstrong, N.J. (2015) Increased insulin following an oral glucose load, genetic variation near the melatonin receptor MTNR1B, but no biochemical evidence of endothelial dysfunction in young Asian men and women. PLOS ONE, 10 (7). e0133611.

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Abstract

Aim
To identify biochemical and genetic variation relating to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in young, lean male and female adults of different ethnicities.

Method
Fasting blood and urine and non-fasting blood following oral glucose intake were analysed in 90 Caucasians, South Asians and South East/East Asians.
Results

There were no differences in age, birthweight, blood pressure, body mass index, percent body fat, total energy, percentage of macronutrient intake, microalbumin, leptin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, nitric oxide metabolites, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, von Willebrand factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue plasminogen activator. Fasting total cholesterol (P = .000), triglycerides (P = .050), low density lipoprotein (P = .009) and non-fasting blood glucose (15 min) (P = .024) were elevated in South Asians compared with Caucasians, but there was no significant difference in glucose area under curve (AUC). Non-fasting insulin in South Asians (15–120 min), in South East/East Asians (60–120 min), and insulin AUC in South Asians and South East/East Asians, were elevated compared with Caucasians (P≤0.006). The molar ratio of C-peptide AUC/Insulin AUC (P = .045) and adiponectin (P = .037) were lower in South Asians compared with Caucasians. A significant difference in allele frequency distributions in Caucasians and South Asians was found for rs2166706 (P = 0.022) and rs10830963 (P = 0.009), which are both near the melatonin receptor MTNR1B.

Conclusions
Elevated non-fasting insulin exists in young South Asians of normal fasting glucose and insulin. Hepatic clearance of insulin may be reduced in South Asians. No current biochemical evidence exists of endothelial dysfunction at this stage of development. MTNR1B signalling may be a useful therapeutic target in Asian populations in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Publication Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: School of Engineering and Information Technology
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Copyright: © 2015 Matuszek et al.
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/27989
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