Hague Conventions (1899, 1907)
Webster, A. (2011) Hague Conventions (1899, 1907). In: Martel, G., (ed.) The Encyclopedia of War. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp. 1-6.
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The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907 marked the first significant attempts to codify the international law of war and the opening of the modern era of efforts toward international disarmament. The First Hague Conference (May 18–July 29, 1899) adopted three conventions and three declarations: the Convention (I) for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, the Convention (II) with respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land, and the Convention (III) for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention of August 22, 1864; and the Declaration concerning Asphyxiating Gases, the Declaration concerning Expanding Bullets, and the Declaration to Prohibit for the Term of Five Years the Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons, and Other New Methods of a Similar Nature. The Second Hague Conference (July 15–October 18, 1907) adopted 13 conventions and one declaration: the Convention (I) for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, the Convention (II) respecting the Limitation of the Employment of Force for the Recovery of Contract Debts, the Convention (III) relative to the Opening of Hostilities, the Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, the Convention (V) respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land, the Convention (VI) relating to the Status of Enemy Merchant Ships at the Outbreak of Hostilities, the Convention (VII) relating to the Conversion of Merchant Ships into War-Ships, the Convention (VIII) relative to the Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines, the Convention (IX) concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War, the Convention (X) for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention, the Convention (XI) relative to Certain Restrictions with Regard to the Exercise of the Right of Capture in Naval War, the Convention (XII) relative to the Creation of an International Prize Court, and the Convention (XIII) concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War; and the Declaration Prohibiting the Discharge of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons. The principles laid down in the various Hague conventions (in combination with the Geneva conventions) underpinned the international law regulating armed conflict throughout the twentieth century and indeed continue to do so into the present.
|Publication Type:||Book Chapter|
|Murdoch Affiliation:||School of Social Sciences and Humanities|
|Publisher:||John Wiley & Sons Ltd|
|Copyright:||© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.|
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