Pollen presenters in the flowering plants—form and function
Ladd, P.G. (1994) Pollen presenters in the flowering plants—form and function. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 115 (3). pp. 165-195.
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Pollen presenters are specific floral structures, other than anthers, from which pollen is distributed for cross fertilization between flowers. They occur in only five families of monocotyledons and 20 families of the dicotyledons. Presenters in 15 families are described here. In the largest plant family (Asteraceae) all taxa have pollen presenters while in others (e.g. Myrtaceae) they occur in only some species in a few genera. Most presenters are associated with the gynoecium and there is a wide range of forms involving hairs or outgrowths of the stylar tissue. Despite the placement of self pollen close to the stigma most taxa are outcrossing and avoid self fertilization by protandry, with the stigma being covered at anthesis, or by precise placement of pollen so that is does not contact the stigma. Likely selective advantages in the development of pollen presenters include greater accuracy in pollen transfer than in the normal anther to stigma movement and avoidance of interference between male and female organs in the flower. In some groups there is enhanced ability for female choice because effective pollen delivery enables a choice from among many pollen grains, while in others pollen presenters enhance male reproductive success. Study of the pollination biology of plants requires a knowledge of which plants have pollen presenters and a full understanding of the structures in the flower which are associated with the pollen presentation action.
|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Murdoch Affiliation:||School of Biological and Environmental Sciences|
|Copyright:||© 1994 The Linnean Society of London.|
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