Classical swine fever and foot-and-mouth disease in Lao PDR
Khounsy, S. and Conlan, J. (2008) Classical swine fever and foot-and-mouth disease in Lao PDR. In: Conlan, J.V., Blacksell, S.D., Morrissy, C. and Colling, A., (eds.) Management of classical swine fever and foot-and-mouth disease in Lao PDR : proceedings of an international workshop held in Vientiane, Lao PDR, 20-21 November 2006. ACIAR Proceedings No. 128. ACIAR, Canberra, Australia, pp. 39-42.
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Approximately 75% of the population of Lao PDR is engaged in agriculture and the vast majority (approximately 90%) of these producers are in the smallholder sector. Livestock are an important contributor to national, agricultural and village economies and are relied on for food security. The pig population has increased over the past 5 years at an annual average increase of 4.7% at the national herd level and up to 20% in some provinces. Cattle and buffalo populations have grown at more modest rates of 1–2% (Figure 1).
Disease, including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and classical swine fever (CSF), is a major constraint to efficient and sustainable livestock production. Up to 80–90% of pigs and 99% of cattle and buffalo are produced in the smallholder sector using low input practices; as such, there is limited private sector input. Disease reporting, diagnosis, control and prevention are addressed by the Lao Government through the National Department of Livestock and Fisheries (DLF) and local agriculture and forestry offices at provincial and district government levels. These activities are supported by international partners such as the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), Commonwealth Scientific and Investigation Research Organisation (CSIRO), Japanese International Cooperation Association (JICA), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), European Union (EU) and Office International des Epizooties (OIE).
Disease reporting and communication are passive and reports are made from villages through government administrations at district and provincial levels and then to the national level—the DLF and the National Animal Health Centre (NAHC). Communication of FMD-related information at regional and international levels is coordinated by the OIE South-East Asian FMD regional coordination unit (SEAFMD RCU), where reports are submitted monthly. Disease reporting for CSF is less well coordinated and information is provided to the OIE.
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