Success and serendipity on achieving high energy density for rechargeable batteries
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Rechargeable lithium batteries that use non-aqueous electrolytes may not be suitable for electric vehicle applications, which require safe, inexpensive, and high energy density. In this paper, we showed that reversible lithium intercalation can occur in MnO2 cathode coupled with Zn anode while using LiOH aqueous electrolyte. This new Zn|LiOH|MnO2 aqueous rechargeable cell could operate around 1.5 V for multiple cycles and possibly be used in battery packs, are of low cost, and environmentally benign. However, higher energy density, power density, and cycling life of the Zn|LiOH|MnO2 system are required for exploiting this technology to better compete with the lithium battery counterparts. Serendipitously, high energy density (270 Wh/Kg) that was achieved with physically mixed additives (Bi2O3 and TiB2) on MnO2 is reported. Physically modified cathode containing multiple additives is shown to be superior in energy density and capacity retention compared to that of the additive-free MnO2 or carbon-coated MnO2 using polyvinylpyrrolidone as the source. The role of the additives (Bi2O3 and Bi2O3 + TiB2) in the MnO2 electrode is found to avoid the formation of unwanted (non-rechargeable) products and to decrease the polarization of the electrode.
|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Murdoch Affiliation:||School of Chemical and Mathematical Science|
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