Enrichment of Anammox from activated sludge and its application in the CANON process
Third, K., Paxman, J., Schmidt, M., Strous, M., Jetten, M.S.M. and Cord-Ruwisch, R. (2005) Enrichment of Anammox from activated sludge and its application in the CANON process. Microbial Ecology, 49 (2). pp. 236-244.
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A microbial culture capable of actively oxidizing ammonium to dinitrogen gas in the absence of oxygen, using nitrite as the electron acceptor, was enriched from local activated sludge (Western Australia) in <14 weeks. The maximum anaerobic ammonium oxidation (i.e., anammox) activity achieved by the anaerobic culture was 0.26 mmol NH 4+ (g biomass) -1 h-1 (0.58 kg total-N m-3 day-1). Qualitative FISH analysis (fluorescence in situ hybridization) confirmed the phylogenetic position of the enriched microorganism as belonging to the order Planctomycetales, in which all currently identified anammox strains fall. Preliminary FISH analysis suggests the anammox strain belongs to the same phylogenetic group as the Candidatus 'Brocadia anammoxidans' strain discovered in the Netherlands. However, there are quite a few differences in the target sites for the more specific probes of these organisms and it is therefore likely to represent a new species of anammox bacteria. A small amount of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing biomass was inoculated into the anammox reactor (10% v/v) to initiate completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (the CANON process) in chemostat culture. The culture was always under oxygen limitation and no organic carbon was added. The CANON reactor was operated as an intermittently aerated system with 20 min aerobiosis and 30 min anaerobiosis, during which aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation were performed in sequential fashion, respectively. Anammox was not inhibited by repeated intermittent exposure to oxygen, allowing sustained, completely autotrophic ammonium removal (0.08 kg N m-3 day-1) for an extended period of time.
|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Murdoch Affiliation:||School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology|
|Copyright:||© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.|
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