Lippmann diagrams: Theory and application to carbonate systems
Gamsjäger, H., Königsberger, E. and Preis, W. (2000) Lippmann diagrams: Theory and application to carbonate systems. Aquatic Geochemistry, 6 (2). pp. 119-132.
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Since 1980 when F. Lippmann's seminal paper appeared, our understanding of solubility equilibria involving ionic solid solutions has been advanced by theoretical considerations as well as careful experimental studies designed to determine excess Gibbs functions. A unified theory of solid-solution aqueous-solution equilibria as well as the thermodynamic background of the phenomenon of 'stoichiometric saturation' are reviewed. It is shown that Lippmann diagrams effectively summarize the thermodynamic basis of solid-solute acqueous-solution equilibria of sparingly soluble metal carbonate systems. Clearly, the predictive power of these diagrams may be limited due to kinetic restrictions. Only when dissolution and precipitation are essentially reversible, favourable conditions to synthesize homogeneous solid phases can be derived from studies of equilibria.
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|Copyright:||© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers.|
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