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IL28B, HLA-C, and KIR variants additively predict response to therapy in chronic Hepatitis C virus infection in a European cohort: A cross-sectional study

Suppiah, V., Gaudieri, S., Armstrong, N.J., O'Connor, K.S., Berg, T., Weltman, M., Abate, M.L., Spengler, U., Bassendine, M., Dore, G.J., Irving, W.L., Powell, E., Hellard, M., Riordan, S., Matthews, G., Sheridan, D., Nattermann, J., Smedile, A., Müller, T., Hammond, E., Dunn, D.S., Negro, F., Bochud, P-Y, Mallal, S., Ahlenstiel, G., Stewart, G.J., George, J. and Booth, D.R. (2011) IL28B, HLA-C, and KIR variants additively predict response to therapy in chronic Hepatitis C virus infection in a European cohort: A cross-sectional study. PLoS Medicine, 8 (9). e1001092.

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    Link to Published Version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001092
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    Abstract

    Background
    To date, drug response genes have not proved as useful in clinical practice as was anticipated at the start of the genomic era. An exception is in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin (PegIFN/R). Viral clearance is achieved in 40%–50% of patients. Interleukin 28B (IL28B) genotype predicts treatment-induced and spontaneous clearance. To improve the predictive value of this genotype, we studied the combined effect of variants of IL28B with human leukocyte antigen C (HLA-C), and its ligands the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), which have previously been implicated in HCV viral control.

    Methods and Findings
    We genotyped chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1 patients with PegIFN/R treatment-induced clearance (n = 417) and treatment failure (n = 493), and 234 individuals with spontaneous clearance, for HLA-C C1 versus C2, presence of inhibitory and activating KIR genes, and two IL28B SNPs, rs8099917 and rs12979860. All individuals were Europeans or of European descent. IL28B SNP rs8099917 “G” was associated with absence of treatment-induced clearance (odds ratio [OR] 2.19, p = 1.27×10−8, 1.67–2.88) and absence of spontaneous clearance (OR 3.83, p = 1.71×10−14, 2.67–5.48) of HCV, as was rs12979860, with slightly lower ORs. The HLA-C C2C2 genotype was also over-represented in patients who failed treatment (OR 1.52, p = 0.024, 1.05–2.20), but was not associated with spontaneous clearance. Prediction of treatment failure improved from 66% with IL28B to 80% using both genes in this cohort (OR 3.78, p = 8.83×10−6, 2.03–7.04). There was evidence that KIR2DL3 and KIR2DS2 carriage also altered HCV treatment response in combination with HLA-C and IL28B.

    Conclusions
    Genotyping for IL28B, HLA-C, and KIR genes improves prediction of HCV treatment response. These findings support a role for natural killer (NK) cell activation in PegIFN/R treatment-induced clearance, partially mediated by IL28B.

    Publication Type: Journal Article
    Murdoch Affiliation: Institute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases
    Publisher: Public Library of Science
    Copyright: Suppiah et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/5635
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