Rigor in tourism research: formative and reﬂective construct
Murphy, J., Olaru, D. and Hofacker, C. (2009) Rigor in tourism research: formative and reﬂective construct. Annals of Tourism Research, 36 (4). pp. 730-734.
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About three decades ago Peter published seminal articles on reliability (1979) and construct validity (1981) in the social sciences. ‘‘Valid measurement is the sine qua non of science’’ (1979:6) and ‘‘construct validity is a necessary condition for theory development and testing’’ (1981:133). Specifying constructs as formative or reﬂective is the ﬁrst step in applying construct validity guidelines (Bollen and Lennox 1991; Diamontopoulos and Winklhofer 2001). Incorrectly specifying a construct can lead to Type I or Type II errors, and ‘‘inappropriate conclusions 730 Research notes and reports / Annals of Tourism Research 36 (2009) 715–734about hypothesized relationships between constructs’’ (Jarvis, MacKenzie, and Podsakoff 2003:216). A review of 1,192 consumer behavior constructs in the top four marketing journals argued that the studied articles misspeciﬁed over one in four constructs (Jarvis et al 2003)
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|Murdoch Affiliation:||Murdoch Business School|
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