Selection of different genotype larvae and adult worms for anthelmintic resistance by persistent and short-acting avermectin/milbemycins
Barnes, E.H., Dobson, R.J., Stein, P.A., Le Jambre, L.F. and Lenane, I.J. (2001) Selection of different genotype larvae and adult worms for anthelmintic resistance by persistent and short-acting avermectin/milbemycins. International Journal for Parasitology, 31 (7). pp. 720-727.
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To understand the factors that influence selection for anthelmintic resistance, it is necessary to examine the impact of drug treatment, particularly persistent drugs, on all phases of the worm life cycle. The efficacy of various avermectin/milbemycin anthelmintics was determined against resident worms, incoming larvae (L3) and development of eggs in faecal culture. Homozygote-resistant and maternal and paternal F1-heterozygote genotypes of Haemonchus contortus were used to infect sheep before or after treatment with ivermectin (IVM) oral, IVM capsule, moxidectin (MOX) oral or MOX injectable. Total worm count and quantitative larval culture were used to determine efficacy against parasitic and free-living stages, respectively. Selection for resistance by IVM capsules occurred at the adult and L3 stages because of poor efficacy against these stages for all resistant genotypes. However, the selective advantage of these surviving worms was reduced due to the low development of their eggs to L3 in faecal culture. For MOX, selection for resistance predominantly occurred after treatment because of high efficacy against resident adult worms of all resistant genotypes but poor efficacy against resistant L3 ingested after drug administration. The results indicated no evidence of sex-linked inheritance for IVM resistance. Mean IVM efficacies against homozygous and heterozygous resistant adult worms were not different, and IVM capsule efficacy against incoming L3 was approximately 70% for all resistant genotypes, consistent with a dominant trait. MOX was highly effective against adults of all resistant genotypes and approximately 76% effective against incoming L3 regardless of resistance genotype, also consistent with a dominant trait. These results will enable the impact of persistent drugs on worm control and anthelmintic resistance to be estimated. The results indicate that IVM capsules should not be used in populations where avermectin/milbemycin resistance is present.
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|Copyright:||© 2001 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc.|
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