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Transmission cycles of Giardia duodenalis in dogs and humans in Temple communities in Bangkok—A critical evaluation of its prevalence using three diagnostic tests in the field in the absence of a gold standard

Traub, R.J., Inpankaew, T., Reid, S.A., Sutthikornchai, C., Sukthana, Y., Robertson, I.D. and Thompson, R.C.A. (2009) Transmission cycles of Giardia duodenalis in dogs and humans in Temple communities in Bangkok—A critical evaluation of its prevalence using three diagnostic tests in the field in the absence of a gold standard. Acta Tropica, 111 (2). pp. 125-132.

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Abstract

The prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia duodenalis in canine and human populations in Temple communities of Bangkok, Thailand were determined by evaluating three common diagnostic methods utilised to detect Giardia, namely zinc sulphate flotation and microscopy, an immunofluoresence antibody test and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the SSU-rDNA gene. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity together with the negative and positive predictive values of each test were evaluated in the absence of a gold standard using a Bayesian approach. The median estimates of the prevalence of infection with G. duodenalis in dogs and humans in Thailand were 56.8% (95% PCI, 30.4%, 77.7%) and 20.3% (95% PCI, 7.3%, 46.3%) respectively. PCR and immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFAT) were the most accurate tests overall with diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 97.4% (95% PCI, 88.5%, 99.9%) and 56.2% (95% PCI, 40.4%, 82.9%) for the PCR and 61.8% (95% PCI, 40.8%, 99.1%) and 94.7% (95% PCI, 87.4%, 99.1%) for IFAT respectively Three cycles, anthroponotic, zoonotic and dog-specific cycles of G. duodenalis were shown to be operating among the human and canine populations in these Temple communities in Bangkok, supporting the role of the dog as a potential reservoir for Giardia infections in humans.

Publication Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier BV
Copyright: © 2009 Elsevier B.V.
URI: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/3409
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