Transactive energy for voltage support within residential grids with a high penetration of photovoltaics: A Co-simulation analysis
Croker, Julian (2016) Transactive energy for voltage support within residential grids with a high penetration of photovoltaics: A Co-simulation analysis. Masters by Coursework thesis, Murdoch University.
European emission reduction policies are the main drivers of the deployment of grid-connected renewable energy technologies. As the penetration of these devices increases some negative impacts, such as Photovoltaic (PV) induced voltage rise, become more prevalent. This can result in reduced PV utilisation due to overvoltage tripping of inverters. Some grid operators are implementing changes to grid-connected inverter standards that specify new operating modes, such as non-unity power factor operation or voltage-dependent power reduction, as a solution. However, this could further reduce utilisation and start to affect the economic efficiency of government incentive schemes. An alternative solution is to increase local demand during periods of peak PV generation.
This dissertation analyses the effectiveness of using next generation smart grid technologies (Transactive Energy), together with flexible loads, as a mechanism for reducing PV-induced voltage-rise. A co-simulation platform is developed that couples a Transactive Energy (TE) simulator (PowerMatcher) to a load-flow grid simulator (PyPower) to undertake the analysis. Software models including, a lithium-ion battery, inverter, grid LF, residential load, and a configuration program are developed and validated.
The co-simulations show that PV voltage rise is highly dependent on equivalent impedance, local load as well as the penetration of PV systems and solar irradiance. TE is a promising solution that can reduce voltage rise and therefore enable existing infrastructure to support additional PV penetration. However, for the method to be effective, sufficient demand capacity and flexibility is required.
PV inverters with reactive power capabilities are also proposed to provide voltage support. However, low cable reactance and X/R ratio of the underground cables analysed, resulted in reactive power flow having little impact on voltage levels. Additionally, the benefits of utilising TE battery storage is assessed as an additional means of voltage support. Future TE developments should focus on the forecasting of PV generation, demand, and its flexibility to ensure optimal utilisation of limited flexible resources.
|Publication Type:||Thesis (Masters by Coursework)|
|Murdoch Affiliation:||School of Engineering and Information Technology|
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