Case studies of spinal deformities in ornamental koi, Cyprinus carpio L
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This is a study of vertebral deformities in ornamental koi based on computed radiography and skeletons cleaned by dermestid beetles (Dermestes maculatus). All koi developed gradual onset of swimming abnormalities as adults. Extensive intervertebral osteophyte formation correlated with age of fish and was associated with hindquarter paresis in one koi. Vertebral compression and fusion were the most common spinal deformities occurring at multiple sites, similar to findings in other farmed fish. Site-specific spinal deformities were thought to develop due to differences in swimming behaviour and rates of vertebral growth. One koi had offspring with spinal deformities. Spinal deformities are significant problems in both European and Australian food fish hatcheries. The heritability of vertebral deformities in farmed fish is reportedly low unless there is concurrent poor husbandry or nutritional deficiencies. The specific aetiologies for vertebral deformities in koi in this study could not be ascertained. Current knowledge on spinal deformities in the better studied European food fish species suggests multifactorial aetiologies. Future research should include prospective longitudinal studies of larger numbers of koi from hatch and consideration of all potential risk factors such as husbandry, nutrition, temperature, photoperiod and genetics.
|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Murdoch Affiliation:||School of Veterinary and Life Sciences|
|Publisher:||Blackwell Publishing Ltd|
|Copyright:||© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd|
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