Surface forces in particle technology: Wet systems
Eom, N., Walsh, R.B., Liu, G., Parsons, D.F. and Craig, V.S.J. (2015) Surface forces in particle technology: Wet systems. Procedia Engineering, 102 . pp. 24-34.
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Surface forces play a fundamental role in particle processing as they control the stability, adhesion, friction and rheology of particulate systems and information on all of these can be obtained from an analysis of the normal forces measured between particles. Therefore particle processing at all stages can be informed by knowledge of the forces between the constituent particles. For wet particles systems, the interaction forces between two particles can rarely be predicted from theory, but rather requires experimentation or direct measurement. This requires that the surfaces used have the same as surface properties as the particles. In practice this is rarely possible, as surface force measurements require surfaces with extremely low roughness and precise geometry and the majority of materials do not conform to these requirements. To address these challenges we produce surfaces of low roughness and controlled chemistry using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and are developing methods to calculate and understand the influence of surface roughness on the measured forces. Here we report the forces between hafnia surfaces produced by ALD and show that like ALD produced titania surfaces and silica surfaces, the expected van der Waals forces at high pH are not manifest, suggesting that most real surfaces have unexpectedly repulsive surface forces at high pH and small separations. This will fundamentally alter how these particulate systems behave when being processed, reducing the adhesion and the friction and enhancing the stability compared to the expected interaction from DLVO theory.
|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Copyright:||© 2015 The Authors.|
|Notes:||New Paradigm of Particle Science and Technology Proceedings of The 7th World Congress on Particle Technology|
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