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Alteration of postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations with meal frequency and composition

Kanaley, J.A., Heden, T.D., Liu, Y. and Fairchild, T.J. (2014) Alteration of postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations with meal frequency and composition. British Journal of Nutrition, 112 (9). pp. 1484-1493.

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A frequent eating pattern may alter glycaemic control and augment postprandial insulin concentrations in some individuals due to the truncation of the previous postprandial period by a subsequent meal. The present study examined glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) responses in obese individuals when meals were ingested in a high-frequency pattern (every 2 h, 6M) or in a low-frequency pattern (every 4 h, 3M) over 12 h. It also examined these postprandial responses to high-frequency, high-protein meals (6MHP). In total, thirteen obese subjects completed three 12 h study days during which they consumed 6276 kJ (1500 kcal): (1) 3M – 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (2) 6M – 15 % protein and 65 % carbohydrate; (3) 6MHP – 45 % protein and 35 % carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected every 10 min and analysed for glucose, insulin, C-peptide and GIP. Insulin total AUC (tAUC) and peak insulin concentrations (P< 0·05) were higher in the 3M condition than in the 6M condition, but there were no differences in glucose tAUC between the conditions. The 6MHP regimen (glucose: 3569 (se 83) mmol/l × min (64·3 (se 1·5) g/dl × min), insulin: 1·577 (se 0·146) pmol/l (22·7 (se 2·1) μIU/dl) for 12 h) lowered glucose and insulin excursions more so over 12 h than either the 3M regimen (glucose: 3913 (se 78) mmol/l × min (70·5 (se 1·4) g/dl × min), insulin: 2·195 (se 0·146) pmol/l × min (31·6 (se 2·1) μIU/dl × min) for 12 h) or the 6M regimen (glucose: 3902 (se 83) mmol/l × min (70·3 (se 1·5) g/dl × min), insulin: 1·861 (se 0·174) pmol/l × min (26·8 (se 2·5) μIU/dl × min) for 12 h; P< 0·01). Insulin secretion, GIP concentrations and the glucose:insulin ratio were not altered by meal frequency or composition. In obese subjects, ingestion of meals in a low-frequency pattern does not alter glucose tAUC, but increases postprandial insulin responses. The substitution of carbohydrates with protein in a frequent meal pattern results in tighter glycaemic control and reduced postprandial insulin responses.

Publication Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: School of Psychology and Exercise Science
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Copyright: © The Authors 2014
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