Inflammatory myopathies: Part 1
Mastaglia, F.L. and Ojeda, V.J. (1985) Inflammatory myopathies: Part 1. Annals of Neurology, 17 (3). pp. 215-227.
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The inflammatory myopathies have diverse clinical and pathological features and multiple etiologies. Some are confined to a single muscel or group of muscles (e.g., orbital myositis and localized nodular myositis) while others are diffuse. Infective forms may be due to viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal, or parasitic organisms. Viruses may cause acute self-limited forms of myositis and have been isolated from muscle in some cases of acute rhabdomyolysis and inclusion body myositis. They have also been implicated in some cases of acute rhabdomyolysis and inclusion body myositis. They have also been implicated in some cases of congenital myopathy and in polymyositis and dermatomyositis, but there is no evidence of viral invasion of muscle in these conditions. In polymyositis and dermatomyositis there are derangements in humoral and cellular immune function, and recent evidence suggests an underlying disturbance of immunoregulation. The roles of genetic factors, drugs, and Toxoplasma infection have been under scrutiny. There is increasing recognition of immunological and pathological differences in polymyositis and juvenile and adult dermatomyositis, and in cases with associated connective tissue diseases, suggesting different underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. Inclusion body myositis, eosinophilic myositis, and granulomatous myositis can be separated from the other idiopathic inflammatory myopthies because of distinctive clinical and pathological features and this may also reflect different mechanisms of muscle injury. Recent developments in the treatment of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies include the use of plasmapheresis and total-body irradiation in cases that are resistant to corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs.
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