Catalog Home Page

Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet formation in Santalum album and S. spicatum

Rugkhla, A. and Jones, M.G.K. (1998) Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet formation in Santalum album and S. spicatum. Journal of Experimental Botany, 49 (320). pp. 563-571.

Link to Published Version:
*Subscription may be required


A reproducible system for somatic embryogenesis and plantlet formation of sandalwood has been developed. A high frequency (100%) of somatic embryos were induced directly from various explants in MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium with thidiazuron (1 or 2 μM) or indirectly in medium containing 2,4-D plus thidiazuron. Within 8 weeks, white globular somatic embryos or friable embryogenic tissue developed on cultured explants. In S. album the globular somatic embryos were transferred to MS medium supplemented with IAA (6 μM) and kinetin (1 μM) where they developed further, multiplied and maintained friable embryogenic tissue. After 15–30 d, mature somatic embryos (1–2 mm) with well-developed cotyledons were separated and subcultured on to medium containing GA3 (6 μM) for germination. Once germinated, elongated somatic embryos (10–20 mm long) grew further in MS supplemented with lower GA3 (3 μM). In S. spicatum, the addition of casein hydrolysate and coconut milk was necessary for plantlet development from somatic embryos. From histological studies, it appeared that primary somatic embryos arose from single cells or had a multicellular origin from the epidermis or cortical parenchyma. Secondary somatic embryos and friable embryogenic tissue differentiated from groups of proembryogenic cells from a superficial layer of the primary somatic embryos.

Publication Type: Journal Article
Murdoch Affiliation: Western Australian State Agricultural Biotechnology Centre
School of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Item Control Page Item Control Page